冠状病毒(新型冠状病毒肺炎):疫苗和疫苗接种运动

As of February 14, 2022, over 10.50亿年 新型冠状病毒肺炎疫苗已在世界各地接种. 随着第二个冬季大流行的到来 tracking of coronavirus cases 和 deaths 和 the emergence of potentially perilous new variants of the virus are becoming more prominent again. Discover our Statista 新型冠状病毒肺炎 Vaccine Tracker for the 美国 和 four other countries:

China showed an unparalleled pace

目前,古巴和智利的冠状病毒疫苗接种运动 是世界上最成功的基于每个人口的剂量吗. 就纯粹的数量而言, China 和 India are the leading nations, with over three billion doses 和 more than 1.7 billion doses administered, respectively. 因为英国不再是欧盟的一部分, 它大大加快了审批程序 比大多数国家更早开始疫苗接种计划. As a consequence, the UK's vaccination coverage was one of the fastest worldwide.
当涉及到完全接种疫苗的人的比率, there are several countries where already more than 80 percent of the population received the ‘full vaccine package’. Among larger countries, China st和s out with some 87 percent of its population fully vaccinated. 美国.S. achieved some 64 percent until now. When it comes to the booster shot, 在应对欧米克隆变种时特别推荐哪种, Chile is the only larger country who managed to cover over two thirds of its population so far. 与此同时, 中国每天注射大约500万到600万剂疫苗. This is a significantly slower pace than during the summer of 2021 when the daily record was reported for June 28, 2021, 有22个.4 million Chinese receiving the vaccine.

Booster campaign boosted by Omicron threat

At the end of November 2021, a new variant of SARS CoV-2 was reported in South Africa. 令人震惊的消息是 this variant, soon known as Omicron, 显示出免疫逃逸能力和迄今为止前所未见的传播速度. Somewhat moderating was the fact that the variant seemed not to penetrate deep into the lungs 和 thus caused a significantly lower rate of severe cases 和 hospitalizations than Delta和其他变体. 专家, 然而, quickly emphasized that Omicron’s extreme contagiousness 和 its evading of immunity could still cause trouble for hospitals 和 health systems. That would be especially true for Western developed countries where demographics show a much higher share of older populations 一般来说,哪些国家更容易受到冠状病毒的威胁.
Since many people received their first two shots already five, six, or more months ago, booster shots for countering the Omicron wave 在过去的几周和几个月里变得至关重要了吗. Studies showed that especially the mRNA vaccines were effective against Omicron, foremost protecting from severe cases. And indeed, although the variant is causing the highest infection numbers since the begin of the p和emic, 死亡和住院人数大部分仍低于一年前.

Inequality casts a shadow on the global campaign

Although mathematics tells us that every human worldwide should have received at least one dose of a 新型冠状病毒肺炎 vaccine, the reality looks quite different. Most of all African countries, 还包括拉丁美洲和东南亚的几个国家, remain white spots on the global vaccination map. 疫苗接种不平等 is becoming an increasingly prominent key word. It was obvious from the very beginning that rich countries hogged as many vaccines as they could. 国家 like Canada 和 the UK, 例如, reserved doses with which they could vaccinate more than three times of their respective population. 同时, most undeveloped countries were able to secure pre-orders covering only five to ten percent of their population. 像刚果民主共和国、海地和乍得这样的国家仍然不到一个 percent of its population vaccinated.
It is, of course, also up to the biopharmaceutical companies to make their products accessible. While 阿斯利康 delivered almost two thirds of its doses to lower-middle-income countries, 现代化 delivered nearly 85 percent of its doses only to the richest countries. 在最近的一份报告中, 现代化, 辉瑞, 和 BioNTech are directly criticized by Amnesty International for putting profit before accessibility. These companies have already been criticized for their high vaccine price tags, especially considering the fact that 现代化’s 和 BioNTech’s 新型冠状病毒肺炎 research was largely funded by taxpayer money.

SARS-CoV-2 mutations pose a new threat

During late 2020 和 early 2021, more infectious new variants of the novel coronavirus were discovered in the UK, South Africa, 和巴西从那以后,它在越来越多的国家蔓延开来. 而英国型(b1.1.7, 现在被称为变体“阿尔法”)具有明显更高的传播率, 到目前为止,它似乎没有影响到现有疫苗的效力. But studies published in mid-March showed that B.1.1.7比以前的变种致命超过50%. 这是显示, 例如, 一名55 - 69岁男性死于新型冠状病毒肺炎的风险从0.6 to 0.9 percent within 28 days after a positive test.
与此同时,变异首先在南非发现(B.1.351, now called variant "Beta") 和 in 巴西 (P.1,现在称为变体“Gamma”)显示出免疫逃逸/逃避的潜力. For example, 现代化’s vaccine showed significantly lower efficacy rates against B.1.351. 作为回应,美国政府采取了行动.S. biotech company launched a trial for a modified version to tackle the new virus variant. Almost every virus develops mutations over time 和 they can both weaken the virus or make it more dangerous for humans. To observe 和 track the new variants is of great importance regarding the success of the ongoing global vaccination campaign.
在4月和5月期间,一种新的变体成为全球关注的焦点. First discovered in India at the end of 2020, B.1.617 (now called variant "Delta") has already become the dominant variant in India 和 was primarily responsible for the recent surge in new cases. 在英国、美国和其他一些国家也发现了这种病例.S.和德国. A subtype of this variant – B.1.617.2 -似乎比B型流感更具传染性.1.1.7变种. 目前的疫苗继续对这种新变种有效, although at a somewhat lower efficacy level. 与此同时, 德尔塔型已经被视为下一个主要的驱动力, 第四波大流行预计将在秋季到来.

渴望正常

Statistic: Drug manufacturers with the highest number of ordered 新型冠状病毒肺炎 vaccine doses as of January 2021* (in million doses) | Statista The interest in the vaccines is of course an expression of humanity’s unabated wish 和 hope to eventually 通过群体免疫来恢复正常生活. Nothing is fueling this hope like the three most prominent/promising vaccines from Biontech/辉瑞, 现代化, 和 阿斯利康该项目将于2020年底开始获得批准. Combined, these three received 和 agreed to pre-orders for around five billion doses worldwide.
首个新型冠状病毒肺炎疫苗 has been approved for widespread use 在英国第一批疫苗已于2020年12月8日交付给英国老年人. 美国 紧随其后的是12月14日美国人发射的第一枪. 尽管它是人类历史上开发和推出最快的疫苗, the next obstacle awaits: How to distribute the vaccine to billions of people around the world? The largest vaccination campaign ever is also a gigantic supply 和 logistic challenge.

Trust is essential for a successful campaign

不仅需要有效地分发疫苗, 但也有足够多的人愿意接种疫苗. 疫苗犹豫 became a more prominent topic recently, 和 the ongoing p和emic has an intensifying effect. 有些国家传统上对疫苗接种持怀疑态度, 首先是法国, 俄罗斯, 以及前苏联和前社会主义集团的许多其他国家, 以及意大利北部等反疫苗运动强烈的地区. 此外, the mixture of a permanent crisis situation, 断断续续的封锁, 限制是滋生普遍怀疑主义的温床, 当局拒绝, 和阴谋论.


统计数据:美国占全球人口的百分比.S. adults who would get vaccinated against 新型冠状病毒肺炎 if a FDA approved vaccine is available for free as of January 2021 | Statista此外,实验室发展的巨大速度 和 produced the vaccines as well as the quickened process of approval raise concerns among many people, questioning whether they have been thoroughly tested (while other major factors like technology advancements, R中的合力&D,来自许多国家的特别资金经常被忽视。. 相应的, in many countries the group of hesitant people who ‘first want to wait 和 see’ was significant – 例如, almost 40 percent of all surveyed in the 美国 at the begin of the vaccination campaign, 虽然到2021年10月,这一比例降至5%. Among the countries with the most positive attitudes towards the new vaccines are the UK 和 the Sc和inavian countries, 而法国, 日本, 和 Pol和 showed lower approval rates.

唯一真正改变游戏规则的人

当这种新型冠状病毒的致命潜力变得显而易见时, 找到一种安全有效的疫苗是全球卫生的优先事项. 除了有潜在危险的自然感染群体免疫, 对许多专家来说,这是这场大流行中唯一真正改变游戏规则的东西. Being the first company to produce a vaccine against the new disease is a matter of prestige 和, 更是如此, a matter of potentially high profits. Not only the established big pharma companies, but also small innovative biotech firms 正在竞相研制对抗新型冠状病毒的疫苗吗. 有几家这样的公司 increased their market capitalization as a result of being involved in research on SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 - the virus that causes the 新型冠状病毒肺炎 disease).

2020年11月的好消息

11月9日, 辉瑞BioNTech announced that their vaccine BNT162b2 was 90 percent effective in protecting from 新型冠状病毒肺炎. After more evidence from the trials came in, the efficacy rate was corrected to even 95 percent. Thus, the American-German cooperation was the first project with preliminary evidence from phase III in clinical trials.

Statistic: Number of coronavirus (新型冠状病毒肺炎) drugs 和 vaccines in development worldwide as of January 15, 2021, by阶段| Statista This would facilitate the production of the first 50 million doses of the vaccine until year-end, 然后是另一个1.2021年30亿剂. BioNTech/辉瑞宣布上市仅一周后, U.S. biotech company 现代化 also reported that phase III trials of its vaccine showed an outst和ing 95 percent efficacy. Both vaccines are using mRNA technology 和 would be the first vaccines of this kind ever brought to market. As of early December, applications for (emergency) approval have already been submitted in the U.S. 和欧洲. 在12月2日, the United Kingdom became the first country to announce the approval of the BioNTech/辉瑞 vaccine for widespread use among its population.

Progress 和 setbacks for 阿斯利康's vaccine

阿斯利康在11月23日补充了这一正面消息. The company reported that its vaccine – developed in partnership with 牛津大学 – showed a 62-90 percent efficacy in phase III. Although the efficacy is significantly lower, 这种疫苗可能是全世界广泛使用的最受欢迎的疫苗. While the vaccines developed by 现代化 和 especially 辉瑞 need an ultracold supply chain that has yet to be established, 阿斯利康的疫苗可以在正常的冰箱温度下储存. Therefore, it would be far more attractive for remote areas 和 poorer countries. 然而, the big range in efficacy 和 the fact that patients with a lower dose showed the most protection, exposed dosing errors in the trial. There were further setbacks to hit the late-stage clinical trials of the 阿斯利康/Oxford project. One patient developed severe neurological symptoms, while another volunteer died in 巴西. 审判持续, 然而, 因为死者被认为是安慰剂组的一员.

Finally, on December 30, the British authorities gave green light for the vaccine. But the next turn of events came at the end of January when it became clear that the British-Swedish company will not be able to deliver the 许多国家预先订购了大量疫苗 around the world within the agreed time frame. The announcement of reduced deliveries led to a heated dispute especially between the European Union 和 the drug manufacturer. In February, further throwbacks came along. 由于缺乏老年人的疗效数据, 一些国家只批准65岁以下的成年人接种该疫苗. 在南非, the use of the 阿斯利康 vaccine was stopped after it showed a too low efficacy against the new mutation of the virus.

Early frontrunners in the race for a vaccine

从新冠病毒疫苗研究开始, 现代化的mRNA-1273可能是被提到最多的正在开发的疫苗. 它已经被 由现代化 Inc .开发. in partnership with the National Institute of Allergy 和 Infectious Diseases (NIAID). Considering how slow drug development can be, the new vaccine was ready in record time, 比以往大流行期间生产的药品快得多. This was made possible mostly by significant scientific advances in recent years.

Statistic: Number of coronavirus (新型冠状病毒肺炎) clinical trials for drugs 和 vaccines worldwide as of August 10, 2020, by类型| Statista The mRNA-1273 vaccine was the first vaccine worldwide given to healthy humans. The urgent situation means that 监管机构已开始批准紧急审批 for diagnostics, vaccines, 和 treatments. 后现代化, CanSino Biologics from China was the second company which started running clinical tests in healthy volunteers. 这三位领先者是由一个团队完成的 牛津大学 通过合作 阿斯利康.

来自俄罗斯的惊喜

8月11日, 俄罗斯总统普京 announced that his country was the first to have a vaccine ready to be administered to 新型冠状病毒肺炎 patients. 作为一种显示对"Sputnik V"疫苗完全信心的方式, 他告诉媒体,他的一个女儿已经服用了一剂. 俄罗斯以外的科学家对此表示怀疑. 不仅临床试验II期只有76名参与者, but phase III results were skipped completely. Phase III began only in September with approximately 40,000 volunteers, according to 俄罗斯n sources. 但是在11月, the first results of the late-stage trial showed that the Sputnik V vaccine had a high efficacy, 在92- 95%之间. 世界上有几个国家已经预定了疫苗, Western countries remained skeptical, 称目前俄罗斯的审判缺乏经过同行评议的证据. These concerns have been removed to a certain extent by an analysis published in The Lancet on February 2, 证实了Sputnik V的高功效接近92%. 从那时起, an increasing number of Western pharmaceutical companies 和 countries are in talks with the 俄罗斯n site about producing 和 using Sputnik V. A big issue for Western countries is, 然而, that 俄罗斯 might want to gain political leverage 和 influence through the vaccine. 5月6日, 俄罗斯 announced that over 20 million people worldwide have received at least one dose of Sputnik V so far.

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