European Union - Statistics & Facts

欧洲联盟(EU)于1993年根据《新京十大正规网站》成立. 今天,它由27个成员国组成,是世界上最大的单一市场. 人口约4.5亿, and a GDP of 13 trillion euros, 如果欧盟是一个国家,那么它在这两个指标上都将是世界第三大国家. 欧盟首先是一个政治和经济伙伴关系类型的机构, 具有重要的国际影响力, both economically and politically. As the EU has grown, 它扩大了在环境政策等领域的活动, cultural development, integration policy, and international exchange, 以及促进人权. The EU has its own currency, the Euro, which is used by 19 member states; it also has a free travel area with limited border controls, known as the Schengen Area, which applies to 22 members; and there are 24 official languages used by the EU. 欧洲联盟立法和政策的主要机构是欧洲议会, the Council of the European Union, and the European Commission. 许多成员国在这方面的排名都很高 human development民主和自由,无论威胁如何上升 欧洲的民族主义和专制主义 被视为对欧盟稳定的最大威胁.

History

Following the Second World War, 欧洲建立了一系列的政治和经济组织来促进和平, cooperation, and integration, after decades of war and instability. 欧洲委员会监督了对民族主义的压制和民主的推进, 而欧洲煤钢共同体则处理经济和贸易事务. 1957年的《新萄新京十大正规网站》加强了这些联盟, 与欧洲经济共同体一起建立了关税联盟. 这些组织是现代欧盟的前身, 在战后的几十年里 most prosperous in Europe's history. 这些组织的核心是法国, West Germany, Italy, and the Benelux countries, 法国和德国是欧洲一体化的非正式领导人. 因为欧共体的经济增长超过了大多数其他西欧经济体, membership became more appealing, particularly for the UK 战后谁的国际影响力减弱了. 英国于1973年加入,其他几个西欧国家于1986年加入.

欧洲联盟于1993年正式成立, 德国总理赫尔穆特·科尔和法国总统François密特朗是其主要建筑师. This period also coincided with the fall of communism in Eastern Europe以及随后向民主的过渡. 哥本哈根标准是在这一时期制定的,以确保未来的成员国满足某些资格要求, regarding economics, politics, and human rights, in order to join the EU. By 1995, 大多数西欧国家都加入了欧盟, 挪威和瑞士是主要的例外. In 2002, the Eurozone was launched, creating a single monetary area across much of Europe; unfortunately, the European debt crisis 2009年的经济危机意味着一些欧元区国家(尤其是希腊)的经济困难因此在整个欧盟产生了强烈的连锁反应. 在2004年至2013年期间,许多前东欧集团国家也成为了欧盟成员. 13个相对较弱的经济体加入欧盟经历了一场 wave of economic migration 从这些国家到西方,为欧洲一体化带来了新的动力.

Brexit and the future of the EU

In 2016, 英国就欧盟成员国身份举行的全民公投显示,52%的选民选择离开欧盟, in what is known as Brexit. The result came a surprise to many, 并带来了爱尔兰硬边界等问题, Scottish independence, and international trade to the fore. After years of uncertainty and negotiations, the United Kingdom, Europe’s second most powerful economy, left the EU in January 2020. Initially, 英国退欧导致法国等国的欧洲怀疑主义在某种程度上激增, Hungary, and the Netherlands; however, 这一过程的经济影响和退出的复杂性使其逐渐下降, 2019年,欧盟在公民中获得了近40年来最高的好感度. The fallout of Brexit is ongoing, 波兰和匈牙利等成员国的民主倒退也引起了欧盟内部的担忧, yet the European Union’s work continues. 欧盟花了超过10%的GDP来提供 新冠肺炎大流行期间的经济救济它正在推动数字化和创新,而且 目标是到2050年使欧洲达到碳中和.

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